NEW DEVELOPMENTS                   



The theory behind the E-bomb was discussed in 1925 by physicist Arthur H. Compton — not to build weapons, but to study atoms.  Compton demonstrated that firing a stream of highly energetic photons into atoms that have a low atomic number causes them to eject a stream of electrons.  Physics students know this phenomenon as the Compton Effect.  It became a key tool in unlocking the secrets of the atom . . . and a key to Pandora's Box.

Some new ways in developments and new generation of the electromagnetic weapons was reached at last decades.

1. Nuclear “Super-EMP” weapons

Russian and Chinese military scientists in open source writings describe the basic principles of nuclear weapons designed specifically to generate an enhanced-EMP effect, that they term “Super-EMP” weapons. “Super-EMP” weapons, according to these foreign open source writings, can destroy even the best protected U.S. military and civilian electronic systems. From the early 1980s, U.S. military scientists aimed at creating a super-EMP weapon with intensified electromagnetic radiation output. They figure to use it to increase the intensity of the field at the Earth's surface to several hundred kilovolts per meter.

2. Electromagnetic Bombs

Electromagnetic bombs offer another method to generate EMP through non-nuclear means. E-bombs  use conventional explosives to destroy a pre-charged electric circuit in a way that produces a desired electromagnetic wave. Since they destroy themselves to generate the pulse, they are inherently single-use devices suited to projectile munitions or suitcase bombs.

The first theoretical ideas about the nonnuclear shockwave super-powerful pulse generators (SPG) were described by Andrei Sakharov, the member of the Soviet Union Academy of Sciences, during his research of nuclear fusion reactions in the early 50s of the last century. In the 60s not only scientists but also politicians of the USSR understood that this source of super-power electromagnetic pulses could be the basis for creating a new type of weapon. This was revealed in addresses of N.S. Khrushchev in the 60s where he referred to some "fantastic weapons”. Certainly, it took some time to create new weapons based on purely theoretical studies. The first report about SPG, as independent weapon generating super-powerful electromagnetic pulses, was officially announced by the Soviet scientist A.B. Prischepenko after successful tests were made on March 2, 1984 at the weapon range of Krasnoarmeisky Research Institute "Geodesiya" in Moscow region (now Federal Research Center "Geodesiya"). Later, A.B. Prischepenko formulated general principles for combat use of electromagnetic weapons. The SPG, generates a powerful pulse of electromagnetic emission at the moment of sudden contraction of resonator cavity.

1 - electromagnetic resonator;
2 - standing wave;
3 – explosive substance;
4 - directed electromagnetic emission;
5 - scattered explosion products
A specific external source, even low-power, initiates a standing wave in the resonator cavity. The wave can either be maintained during a certain period of time, or it can be created a few moments before the explosion. An explosion of conventional explosives results in very quick contraction of the resonator cavity (either uniformly along the whole lateral surface, or at the end).

The electromagnetic field limited by the resonator cavity is quickly compressed increasing the frequency of its oscillations. This way the explosion energy transforms into the energy of electromagnetic oscillations. Compared to the initial power, the power of electromagnetic oscillations increases a thousand fold. At this point, pyro-cartridge destroys one of the resonator ends and the standing wave transforms into the travelling wave with huge pulse power. According to published data, this pulse lasts tens or hundreds of microseconds, while the amplitudes of the emerging current reach tens of millions of amperes. Just to compare: the strength of lightning current during a storm discharge usuallu not exceed 20-30 thousand amperes and very rarely it can reach 100 thousand Amp. Published results indicate rise times between 10 and a few hundredmillionths of a second, and peak energy output near 10 megaJoules, which equates to a field strength of 1 kV/m at a range of 1 mile. 

The E-bomb mainly affects electronic equipment. It could cripple enemy communication systems and could stop civilian infrastructures such as power plants, manufacturing, hospitals and transportation, from working. It can scramble phones and computers and knock out various facilities, and cause lights to blink out. Fluorescent lights and television sets will glow eerily bright, even if they're turned off. Electric wires and telephone lines will melt. Computers will be toast.

 3. Soviet Union's Experiences

According to some publications in the 80s the Soviet Union has repeatedly conducted experiments with electromagnetic weapons in space, which resulted in the numerous faults of power systems in various U.S. states. About twenty years ago the author of this site attended the advance defense of doctoral thesis on the theoretical aspects of the transfer of energy from the space super-high-frequency source to the Earth. In those years, the USSR simultaneously conducted experiments on generating super-power electric discharges (which were the powerful sources of electromagnetic emission).

 
Experimental equipment of Istra Branch of the All-Russian Electrotechnical Institute (REI). Left – KTZ-MV device (AC voltage in continuous mode is 3 million Volts; switching pulse amplitude is 4 million Volts. Tests at AC voltage of 3 MV showed 50 meters long electric arc, at switching pulse - 80 meters). Right - GIN-9MV (this pulse generator with an output voltage of 9 MV generated anomalous spark with the length of 150 meters.

 
Many American newspapers and magazines of that time reported about unusually powerful electric discharges over the territory of the USSR, which had never been seen before, and at zero storm activity. Some 25 years ago, the author of this site personally saw a picture of a super-long horizontal discharge between two towers above the houses of one village. Today, the information about the possibilities of generating such pulses can be found on the web-site of Istra Branch of REI.

In the years of "perestroika", Russian scientists A. Prischipenko, V. Kiselev and S. Kadimov informed the world society about a new type of weapon developed in the USSR in commemoration of the new era of relations with Western countries.  Their report presented at the International Conference in France was entitled "Radio frequency weapons at future battlefield". That report created a furor and became public domain. Thereafter, other reports on achievements of Russian scientists in this area appeared in the print. Today, the issues on electromagnetic war and terrorism are freely discussed in the press, and at foreign and Russian scientific conferences.

Today, the work on electromagnetic weapons is concentrated in Russia, mainly in three major research centers: Joint Institute for High Temperatures (OIVTRAN, Moscow) led by V.E. Fortov, member of the Academy of Sciences; in Institute of High Current Electronics (IHCE SB RAS, Tomsk), led by G.A. Mesyats, the member of the Academy of Sciences; and Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITY) led by prof. V.E. Cherkovets.

Moscow OIVTRAN is creating magnetic explosion generators of super-power electromagnetic pulses.


Magnetic explosion generator with an output current of 1 million Amperes and voltage of 1 million Volts (power is 800 kJ).

Apparatus 13YA3 "SPHERE" designed for explosion equivalent to 1 ton of TNT


And TRINITY generates super-power plants and studies the physical effects of the super-power electromagnetic pulses.


ANGARA-5-1 Unit designed for generating pulses of super-high electric power. The unit is based on a 8-module generator of electric pulses. The system is designed for generating electrical pulses of up to 12 billion Watt.


4. Super-power ultra-broadband oscillators

Tomsk Institute of High Current Electronics  of Sibirian Branch Russian Academic of Sciencis develops and sales super- power ultra-broadband oscillators of directed non-explosive electromagnetic emission.


Super-power ultra-broadband pulse oscillators of directed super-high-frequency electromagnetic emission of IHCE SB RAS with output power up to 1 billion Watts, which is consistent with the capacity of nuclear power plant unit.

Several pulses of such emissive power will be enough to burn out all electronic devices, including the DPRs, of course. This was, obviously, the suggested application of the latest device developed by OIVTRAN, which has recently been proudly announced by the Director of the Institute, member of the Academy of Sciences, V. Fortov to ITAR-TASS. This device is the explosive electromagnetic generator with the pulse power of one billion Watts, which can be put in a small suitcase while it is capable to burning out all the electronics within a radius of many hundred meters. And according to some reports, it damages even electronics that are switched off at the moment of action. Surely, many countries work on the same issues, including Israel, China, India and Iran. In the U.S., for example, this field is intensively researched by such big corporations as TWR, Raytheon, Lockheed Martin, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Air Force Research Laboratory (Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico), as well as by many civic organizations and universities. In Germany, Rheinmetall Weapons and Munitions has been leading in this field for many years. In particular, the Americans have developed generators of powerful electromagnetic pulses working under different principles. 

There is no need to have any special imagination to imagine how one can put mobile generators, weighing 300 - 400 kg, in a light truck or a van with a plastic body in order to affect the electronic equipment of substations and power plants, computer centers, mission control centers, etc. from a certain distance.

A powerful microwave generator mounted on the car


A mobile powerful microwave generator

High-frequency sources of high-power emission, operating in the centimeter and millimeter range, have an additional mechanism for the penetration of energy into equipment through so-called "back doors", i.e., even through small holes, openings, windows and cracks in metal housings and through poorly shielded interfaces. Any hole that leads inside the equipment acts as a crack in the microwave cavity, allowing microwave emission to form an extensional standing wave inside the equipment. The components located at opposite assemblies of the standing wave will be exposed to strong electromagnetic fields and overvoltage. Memory elements and modern highly-integrated microprocessors are especially sensitive to this kind of impacts.

This decision by IEC is a consequence of the fact that a number of countries now have generators that can produce radiation comparable in intensity with the electromagnetic pulse of a nuclear explosion and would therefore have a more effective impact on radio-electronic systems. The high effectiveness of these generators is explained by the following factors:

1.  They emit not a single pulse, as occurs in a nuclear explosion, but a series of pulses repeated with frequencies of up to several thousand hertz.

2.   The radiation pulses are more broad-banded than the electromagnetic pulse of a nuclear explosion, and they cover the spectrum of sensitivity of most civilian infrastructure targets.

It should be specifically noted that the construction of super broad-band pulse generators is relatively simple. They may be manufactured in semiprimitive conditions with minimal expense. By this reasoning, analysts predict that these devices will fall into the hands of terrorists, common criminals, and hooligans. In the opinion of specialists, the consequences of their ill-intentioned or careless use will be extremely serious. Such consequences could include aviation, automobile, and railway accidents; obstruction of radio communications over large areas; disruption of the operations of computer systems in major banks, supermarkets, and control centers; obstruction of technical security systems in major museums, art galleries, vaults containing valuables, and other secured facilities; breakdowns in the operations of the system for controlling electric power facilities; and so forth.

Of course, such predictions require serious examination and, if they are even partially confirmed, the implementation of serious measures to prevent acts of electromagnetic terrorism and to develop methods for eliminating the consequences of emergency situations in the event such acts are perpetrated. A limited study was conducted by specialists from the Institute of Thermophysics of Extreme States of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Two types of experiments were carried out, one investigating the action of super broad-band electromagnetic pulses on computers and the other studying the effect of these pulses on technical security systems. In the course of the experiments, it was established that the computers under investigation failed when exposed to electromagnetic pulses with an amplitude on the order of several hundred volts per meter. This confirmed the prediction about the danger of super broad-band periodic repeating electromagnetic pulses for computer hardware.

5. Electromagnetic Terrorism

It turns out that old written-off radars are similarly dangerous and can also be used for directed impact on electronic equipment. Why fool around with radars, if you only need to rework your microwave oven to destroy the TV of your neighbor. Such, I may say, "recipes", with drawings and detailed descriptions can also be found in the Internet today.

According to "Popular Mechanics" magazine today even an amateur can make quite a battle-ready electromagnetic weapon with a radius of impact of several meters for about $ 400. The “spread” of such technologies is heavily based on the fact that they are widely used in the army and police. 

         

Such "toys" as a hand emitter, can not only stop a car of criminals by burning out all of its on-board electronics and ignition system, but also completely destroy electronic control systems of energy facilities, security systems, communications and so on being in hands of criminals or terrorists.


A microwave generator made from home microwawe oven


a)                                          b)                                      c)
Some of books, published in Russia on the topic of intentional destructive electromagnetic impacts. a - Explosions and Waves. Explosive Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation in the Radiofrequency Range; b - The Powerful Electromagnetic Pulse: Affects on Electronic Equipment and Methods of Protection; c - Terrorist and Nonconventional Weapons